13 of the best vinyl record players from Amazon, HMV and more for Record Store Day 2018

Mathematician Alan Turing’s theory for a ‘universal machine’, which forms the basis for all modern computing, has been voted the greatest British innovation of the 20th Century Mathematician Alan Turing’s theoretical basis for all modern computers known as the ‘universal machine’ has been voted the greatest British innovation of the past century in a new poll. The famous computer scientist came up with the theory, on which all modern computing is based, in a paper ‘on computable numbers’ in He described a device that would read symbols on a tape and proposed that the tape could be used to program the machine. The ‘universal machine’ came top of a poll to find the greatest British innovation of the past years. More than 50, votes were entered with Turing’s theory securing 18 per cent – just one per cent ahead of the BMC Mini. Changing the course of history: After the war, Alan Turing created the first practical designs for a stored-program computer called the Automatic Computing Engine ACE , pictured The ‘universal machine’ theory laid the foundations for the first ever practical design for a stored-program computer which is still used today Following the war, Turing moved to the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington.

British Weather from 1700 to 1849

But how old are yours? Yet an increasing number of studies have found that lung capacity may in fact be just as important a predictor of longevity. Some experts have even called for lungs to be tested the same way as blood pressure or cholesterol.

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If you enjoy peace and natural beauty, then the gentle and remote stretches of the Upper Thames from its source to Lechlade will suit you. From Lechlade to Eynsford the river is full of such unexpected sights and delights, like kingfishers and otters, or families of ducks having their first swimming lesson across the river, or the sight of cows standing in the river water, their tails gently swishing away.

This lovely area of England is bounded by the Cotswolds. Here you can take a cruise, hire a punt or motor launch, or just sit at one of the many riverside pubs and watch the scullers from the world-famous University Rowing Clubs in training. From Oxford downstream the Thames meanders its way through beautiful countryside reaches and historic settlements, with an enormous and almost inexhaustible variety of places to visit. One of them – Marlow – is a gem of Georgian architecture, for instance.

Alternatively, you can have the magical experience of actually being on the river itself. You will be surprised as I was at how different your experience of the river will be when you are on board a boat, rather than standing on the bank! Photo Maidenhead courtesy David Auckland Historic sites of compelling interest abound, from tiny hamlets such as Mapledurham with its working watermill to the great castles and royal palaces of Windsor and Hampton Court. Though still 60 miles from Southend and the North Sea the Thames becomes tidal.

Twice a day the river flows back up towards its source, as the sea pushes its way up the estuary. Suburban gardens and green open spaces of stately parks rub shoulders with Georgian mansions, often set alongside new luxurious riverside homes built on former industrial sites. Passenger boats coming upriver from Westminster stop at Richmond , Kew , Chiswick , and Putney en route for Kingston and Hampton Court In Central London you will find a wide choice of passenger boats plying the piers between Westminster and the Thames Barrier.

Mo Farah: How Britain’s athletics hero escaped the chaos of Somalia

Time as systematized in modern scientific society Time measurement: Although defining time presents difficulties, measuring it does not; it is the most accurately measured physical quantity. A time measurement assigns a unique number to either an epoch, which specifies the moment when an instantaneous event occurs, in the sense of time of day, or a time interval, which is the duration of a continued event.

All the latest breaking news on London. Browse The Independent’s complete collection of articles and commentary on London.

Compared with many of the areas around it, Greenwich was never an important shipbuilding area and the name of Maudslay has never been popularly associated with sailing ships and yet they built two fast tea clippers on a site, which is now close to the Millennium Dome. London shipbuilding had been an extremely important industry, but by the s it was into its long decline.

Before the s there had been no important shipyard in Greenwich — although the nearby riverside areas of Rotherhithe, Deptford and Blackwall were famous for the ships they produced and, of course, there were the Royal Dockyards at Deptford and Woolwich. It was not until the mid th century that shipbuilding companies seem to have located in Greenwich, to the east of Deptford Creek. Of these the best known are J. Rennie, although we know of no sizeable craft which were built at that yard, and William Joyce, who built some vessels in the s, at Kent Wharf on Deptford Creek.

I have written already, for Bygone Kent, about some of the shipbuilders who came to the Greenwich Peninsula in the s — another of them was Maudslay Son and Field. The company that he founded was to come to Greenwich, in the s, when his sons and grandsons had inherited the works. The structure of the partnership was to change radically over the next few years and, after that, a decision seems to have been taken to open a shipbuilding works at Greenwich.

The potentially vacant places were not immediately taken up, but it seems clear that a younger generation was taking an interest in the company. As we will see, some of this younger generation had a keen interest in sailing ships. By the s, a variety of industries had been taking up sites on the west bank of the Greenwich Peninsula for some twenty years. These sites were owned by the Blackheath based charity, Morden College, which had taken a decision to develop the area for industry in the late s.

One of their tenants had been an American boat builder, who had leased part of the riverfront known as Horseshoe Breach in a blaze of publicity, in

Dunkirk: the Little Ships that bought our soldiers home and inspired a film

Destination England, where Garnett recognises him and details Jimmy to tail him. He meets Miss Kelly a teacher Jane Hylton , and Jimmy overhears plans for a robbery, the prize, a million! He joins the gang. In a Rolls, they drive to the airport dressed as pilots and board a Pan Am plane. Jimmy attempts to prevent it, but is knocked out.

When the crooks land, it’s straight into the arms of the law.

Time as systematized in modern scientific society Time measurement: general concepts. Accuracy in specifying time is needed for civil, industrial, and scientific purposes. Although defining time presents difficulties, measuring it does not; it is the most accurately measured physical quantity.

He had started the race by sprinting off in the wrong direction. The PE teacher saw nearly 15 years of nurturing his protege’s talent since that day pay off on Tuesday night, when he sat in his living room screaming at the television as a magisterial Mo won Britain’s first-ever European gold medal at 10, m. In so doing, Mo completed a journey from war-torn Mogadishu to the heights of sporting excellence.

Born in Somalia and raised in the country’s capital as it sank into a ruinous civil war, Farah was brought to Britain as an eight-year-old by his father. Contrary to reports that he was a refugee, the young boy was able to enter the United Kingdom because of his father’s long-term residence here. But his start to life in a strange country was none the easier for it.

Equipped with just three English phrases — “excuse me”, “where is the toilet? Mo went home that day with a black eye and the respect of his classmates for holding his own. Mr Watkinson, 45, first came across the slight yet spritely schoolboy at Feltham Community College, when as a year-old still struggling to master English and with little academic aptitude, Farah was still getting into trouble and his ambitions consisted largely of playing on the right wing for his beloved Arsenal.

Speaking to The Independent yesterday, Mr Watkinson said: He needed focus and I sort of took him under my wing. His passion was football but it was his turn of speed on the pitch that showed his real talent. I took him to a schools cross-country championship.

Metrology and Calibration Events Calendar

The process of adding letters together is explained in the next paragraph. The internal mechanism of the Tunny machine produced its own stream of letters, known at B. Each letter of the ciphertext was produced by adding a letter from the key-stream to the corresponding letter of the plaintext. The Tunny machine adds letters by adding the individual dots and crosses that compose them. The rules that the makers of the machine selected for dot-and-cross addition are simple.

Dot plus dot is dot.

British Slang is here! Looking for Cornish Slang, Welsh Slang, Liverpool Slang, London Slang, Manchester Slang, Street Slang, Txt Spk, Gay Slang and any other rude stuff that’s spoken in Britain?

A list of the Sunderland built vessels referenced in these pages is at the top of page A list of the Sunderland shipbuilders referenced in these pages is a little lower on page Do you want to make a comment? A site guestbook is here. Austin , page bottom have had to disable it, a beautiful Lake Applet featuring a frog, since it makes access to the whole page impossible.

Not sure why Internet Explorer cannot identify the applet as being harmless Corrections in any of the material which follows, however tiny, would be most welcome. And additions, of course! Hover your mouse over each thumbnail to read the subject matter.

River Thames

Thurston and fired by A. Collis and Fireman E. On Tuesday 28 January No. Sparrow and Fireman Miles. Bogie tipping wagons with continuous brakes, German Railways. Hall; also tank No.

Britain is currently sweltering in a heatwave with temperatures expected to reach a high of 33C (F) by the end of the week. The UK is enjoying wall-to-wall sunshine and sizzled in the hottest.

He gave the following simple example. M has four states, labelled ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, and ‘d’, and is in state a when it starts work. In the table shown, ‘R’ is an abbreviation of the instruction ‘move right one square’, ‘P[0]’ is an abbreviation of ‘print 0 on the scanned square’, and analogously ‘P[1]’. The top line of the table reads: Acting in accordance with this table of instructions—or program—M prints alternating binary digits on the tape, 0 1 0 1 0 Copeland gives a full account of how Turing machines work, and also of the Bletchley Park codebreaking operation and Turing’s work on Enigma, including Turing’s own description of the Bombe.

The UTM universal Turing machine is universal in the sense that it can be programmed to carry out any calculation that could in principle be performed by a ‘human computer’—a clerk who works in accordance with an ‘effective’ or rote procedure. Before the advent of the electronic computer, many thousands of human computers were employed in business, government, and research establishments.

The universal machine has a single, fixed table of instructions built into it—’hard-wired’, so to speak, into the machine. Operating in accordance with this one fixed table, the UTM can read and execute coded instructions inscribed on its tape.

The Thames Barrier has saved London – but is it time for TB2?

The William Morris Internet Archive: Later additions by Graham Seaman are marked [GS]. William Morris Snr, the second of four brothers, was born in Worcester.

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Heatwave Read more Mercury passes 30C – and it is due to get even hotter On Monday, the hottest point of Britain was at Hampton, in London, where temperatures reached Temperatures peaked at just over 30 degrees in the end at both Hampton Water Works in London and Teddington in Middlesex this afternoon, confirming that it’s been the warmest day of the year so far for the UK!

Meanwhile in Scotland, Achnagart in Ross and Cromarty boasted a temperature of The high temperatures are expected to be beaten later this week- before dropping off at the weekend. Heatwave June gallery puff Met Office meteorologist Alex Burkill said the warm weather, with parts of the UK currently hotter than Athens in Greece and Rio in Brazil, looks set to continue into next month.

He said the mercury could rise to a scorching 33C The current heatwave will go close to breaking records for the hottest days and months ever recorded in the UK. The hottest June day on record in the UK was the Last year, Britain basked in the hottest June day recorded in over 40 years when temperatures hit a peak For July, the hottest day on record remains the UK weather Hottest monthly records The heatwave of produced the hottest summer average temperature in the UK since records began, when temperatures reached

River Thames

It was after a disastrous flood in , in which large parts of east London were submerged, and an even worse inundation in in which hundreds died, that the decision was made to construct a huge barrier, a line of six swivelling 3, tonne hydraulic steel gates that act like a gigantic drawbridge to keep the North Sea out. The design brief was to construct a wall of metal to regulate tidal flows and to protect the capital from the sort of floods predicted to happen once every thousand years.

And over three decades it has performed perfectly, protecting an estimated 1. London did not flood even during a massive storm surge in comparable in scale to that in The Barrier has survived 15 ship collisions and it played a largely unsung role in the Jubilee celebrations, taming the tidal Thames into a gigantic lake, safe for the hundreds of small boats, including the royal barges. But the frequency of closures in recent months suggests, say some, firstly that the Barrier is operating close to the limits of what it can do to protect London and at risk upstream areas, and secondly, the more it is used the more likely it is to run into mechanical problems.

13 of the best vinyl record players from Amazon, HMV and more for Record Store Day If you’re heading to independent record stores this week to snap up the exclusive releases you might want.

All week, the pleasure cruiser Marsayru has puttered down the River Thames towards the English Channel. She is a beautiful boat — her steel hull painted white with a blue fringe, her fittings in brass and her cockpit clad in mahogany — yet there are far grander vessels on the water. She is just 43ft long and the British maritime ensign attached to her stern, known as the Red Duster, rarely flutters too briskly in the tail wind as she only reaches a maximum speed of 9 knots.

The vessels – the smallest of which was a 15ft fishing dinghy called Tamzine – came under near constant attack by the Luftwaffe; around were destroyed and 5, soldiers lost their lives. On the outward leg from Ramsgate she was in the company of three other ships; two were lost and the other ran aground as they came under aerial attack near the French coast. Two days later she was buzzed by four Messerschmitt fighters who strafed her with machine gun fire for a full half hour.

Yet she is credited with saving some lives. Today Marsayru is back at the Kent port preparing to embark once more across the Channel on Thursday. She is one of around 50 so-called Dunkirk Little Ships, the survivors of that great fleet, which have convened to recreate their famous passage back to France accompanied by a flypast of Spitfire and Hurricanes. First recreated in , the crossing has been repeated every five years from onwards.

The voyage of was cancelled due to bad weather and some fear the elements might be similarly unkind this year. During the original evacuation the sea was like a millpond and most of these boats were not designed for such crossings in the first place.

About The Thames

Evidence of change in rainfall-runoff response? Author links open overlay panel S. Study focus Modelling with years of rainfall, potential evaporation PE , temperature and naturalised flow data. Daily rainfall-runoff flow simulation using current and three historic land cover scenarios to determine the stationarity of catchment response examined through three time-frames of analysis — annual, seasonal and flow extremes.

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It is not long before they find that their friendship is changing into something more. The situation is somewhat complicated by the fact that Lee’s best friend Timothy Gladstone Adams, an accountant from Henley , is Kate’s ex-boyfriend they broke up when he cheated on her with year-old Emma and he wants to repair their relationship.

Lee is torn between pursuing his romantic feelings for Kate and remaining loyal to his increasingly paranoid best friend. Series 2 [ edit ] Kate has gone back to America leaving Tim with a flat and lodger he cannot afford to keep. Tim’s sister Lucy Adams, a head hunter recently back from ten years abroad, buys the flat and becomes the new landlady and flatmate to Lee. In “Gay”, the series’ second episode, year-old Guy first appears and he soon becomes Lucy’s boyfriend.

Lee, now an ice-cream seller, later appears to fall for Lucy. In the last episode Tim and Lee are convinced Guy is a gangster and has been smuggling diamonds but it turns out that he was having a diamond engagement ring made for Lucy planning to propose on a romantic holiday. Lee leaves the airport thinking Lucy has said yes to Guy but she returns saying that she was too young to get married and that she had split up with Guy.

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